Discovery services provide a way to ensure books are easily found by patrons. In this information age, how does Elsevier ensures visibility & discoverability in the digital era, shares Dr Sangeeta Mehta, Regional Director- South Asia, Research Solution Sales, Elsevier. AABP: How does Elsevier work with researchers to further their careers?

Dr Sangeeta Mehta, Regional Director- South Asia, Research Solution Sales, ElsevierDr Sangeeta: Elsevier’s leading information solution empowers over 15 million researchers, teachers, students, healthcare professionals and information professionals around the world to be more impactful in their work. ScienceDirect combines authoritative, full-text scientific, technical and health publications with smart, intuitive functionality so researchers can stay more informed, and can work more effectively and efficiently. With over 14 million publications from over 3,800 journals and more than 35,000 books from Elsevier, our imprints and our society partners, ScienceDirect empowers smarter research.

The company has launched new ethics in research and publication program. The program emphasizes the individual researcher's contribution and commitment to advancing scientific progress through integrity, and uses a series of training materials, guides, and interactive tools to highlight the impact misconduct can have. Among the violations explored are: research fraud, plagiarism, and duplicate submission.

AABP: How specifically does Elsevier aid visibility and discovery?

Dr Sangeeta: Elsevier’s ScienceDirect platform is the most ideal place to engage with its content because it offers enhanced ebook experience with linking, video, audio, animations, and widgets like Virtual Microscope and Interactive Mapping.

For S&T Books, discovery services provide a way to ensure our books can be easily found by our patrons. Elsevier has signed agreements allowing leading web discovery services – Primo (Ex Libris) and EDS (EBSCO Discovery Service) – to feature “Cited By” number links from Scopus in their search results. A memorandum of understanding with a third service, Summon (Serials Solutions), has also been agreed. Compatibility with the discovery services increases the profile and discoverability of Scopus content within subscribing institutions. The links will drive traffic to the database and encourage users to make greater use of its analytical tools as they extend and refine their original searches.

Apart from discoverability, the importance of supporting web accessibility cannot be underestimated. At Elsevier, much of our focus is on ScienceDirect, a full-text database of more than 2,500 journals and 30,000 books. The team developing ScienceDirect has a high commitment to supporting researcher efficiency, including how the platform is developed to serve researchers with disabilities or impairments, be they auditory, cognitive, physical, speech or visual disabilities.

AABP: What about impact? How do they help research in this area?

Dr Sangeeta: We are known for quality content. The announcement of the 2017 Nobel Prize winners earlier this month underlined, once again, Elsevier’s leading position as a publisher of science and economics. Following a precedent set in previous years, a series of key articles were made freely available to celebrate the success of this year’s Chemistry Laureates – Dr. Jacques Dubochet, Dr. Joachim Frank and Dr. Richard Henderson – honored for their work in developing cryo-electron microscopy. 173 out of 174 Nobel Prize winners in science and economics since 2000 have published their work with Elsevier, and still more articles were opened up for free access.

AABP: How is the quality challenge addressed in the Indian context?

Dr Sangeeta: We offer various writing and editing workshops for researchers in India to train them to be better authors, editors or reviewers. This helps in bringing a global perspective and quality change in publishing landscape of India with us.

AABP: What are various options offered to researchers from India?

Dr Sangeeta: We do not have regional publishing policies, hence, we provide global standard content coming from all over the world including India. Since Scopus is proprietary tool of Elsevier, we use this database to find authors with high H index, indicating their reputation in respective fields and approach them to write for us thus providing content from experts in the field.

AABP: Is OA a credible option being used effectively in India?

Dr Sangeeta: OA is widely misunderstood in India. Through workshops and marketing activities, we are trying to create awareness about Green and gold open access and helping our patrons to steer away from predatory journals or substandard publishing.

AABP: What are the challenges faced by researchers in India and usefull link how does Elsevier help in addressing these?

Dr Sangeeta: Main challenges faced by researchers are reduced funding for resources, quality research output and availability of peer-reviewed content in both books and journals. Currently a lot of early career researchers still refer to unreliable resources like Wikipedia and blogs and freely available non-peer reviewed content. ScienceDirect topic pages were introduced in 2017 which are are free, so both subscribed and unsubscribed ScienceDirect users have access. The pages are very discoverable through search engines, leveraging a discovery route people already use to find relevant information. Hence topic pages help researchers discover and comprehend scientific topics, improving their performance hence helping researchers and student with quality and citable data for credible scientific research and publishing.

We also offer free Author workshops for scholarly writing aimed at early career researchers in India and to help them understand the publishing process and publishing ethics. Such workshops help researchers with career advancements and networking. In 2017 more than 40 author workshops were conducted in India for various Universities and Institutions.

AABP: Any specific measures, or ideas you have used or are planning in the context of your role.

Dr Sangeeta: Being a researcher in past gives me a better understanding of need for both researchers and student workflows. Thus my team delivers solutions specific to need of institutions depending on their focus areas such as teaching, research, a mix of both or administration. Elsevier has an advantage in terms of hosting its advanced content like journals and fundamental content like books on same platform. This facilitates better understanding of journals thus driving usage and also helping in multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary research by accessing the books and learning quickly.

I have plans to continue to conduct workshops by bringing in experts from my publishing and editorial team to support Indian researchers.

Dr Sangeeta Mehta currently holds the position of Director South Asia for Research Solutions. She has Doctoral degree in Microbiology with specialization in drug target discovery and biological control and MS with specialization in Pathology. Dr Mehta has been awarded NIH Fellowship and Adjunct Faculty position at the Burnett School of Medicine, Florida, USA and a Post-Doctoral Fellowship at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Before joining Elsevier Dr. Mehta has worked at organizations such as Agilent Technologies, Thomson Reuters, ASSOCHAM and TERI at various capacities has implemented many MoUs with Industry and Academia for collaborations and creating value for customers and developing Key Opinion Leaders.

To date, she has 11 peer-reviewed publications, 4 invited book chapters on applied Microbiology. She is key inventor on 4 PCT, 4 US, 1 European, 2 Indian and 1 South African published patents in the field of Applied Microbiology. Also, she successfully has transferred microbial technologies to blue chip biotechnology companies in India and globally.

The future of publishing lies in how well publishers can create a solution that can go up the value chain. Publishing would evolve into a model where the content is free but the services, delivery format and personalization of learning that publishers can create will have a premium price, says Vikas Gupta, Managing Director, Wiley India. AABP: What is the future of publishing in India in the context of the key challenges being facedby publishing industry and publishers today?

Vikas: The publishing landscape has changed drastically over the past few years. One of the biggest challenges is the misconception or unawareness that exists about piracy or photocopying amongst people at large.

The common perception is that downloading or photocopying content is not piracy. In recent times, we have seen this notion finding further support with the judgement that photocopying for educational purposes was not to be considered as infringement of copyright basis the specific educational use exception provided under the Copyright Act. The argument was based on the rationale that university level books are expensive and photocopying will make access to content economical for students. However, this makes the publishing scenario bleak and increasingly difficult for both the authors and the publishers making it increasingly difficult to even cover the costs of making quality books today. An author puts in enormous effort, years of research and hard work to create original content. Not paying for a book is equivalent to not acknowledging this hard work, thereby killing an author’s motivation to create.

On the other hand, publishing is a valuable service which makes an author’s content reach out to the masses in the best possible format through its distribution network, which comes at a cost.

When it comes to digital content, the scenario is even more serious as people generally assume online content is free of cost and can be replicated easily. All this is making publishing a difficult business proposition and publishers are struggling to survive.

In this challenging scenario, publishers who will understand the value of technology as an enabler will be able to thrive by (a) creating unique value propositions using technology, (b) building a viable ecosystem for learning and (c) offering new business models, the remaining are at the risk of perishing sooner or later.

AABP: How is technology changing the publishing landscape?

Vikas: Why is content valuable? Well, a book or content satisfies unmet needs of the reader, student, faculty and anyone who is looking to enhance his/ her knowledge or skills. However, a book alone cannot satisfy the needs of a learner. In this age of low attention span, fast reskilling need and plethora of information available, true learning can happen only when there is an environment that is aligned to each learner’s requirements and is supported with visual learning aids. If a publisher limits the offering to meet only one of the various needs of learners or offers one-fit solution for all, the business model will not work. That is where technology becomes an enabler. Content is available in plenty through the Internet or any other online or media channels, but the value of a publisher is how best the knowledge can be curated, packaged and delivered – and this can be best done using technology. In other words, technology helps us package and deliver the learning in a way that is aligned to each learner’s personal comfort and style, in various formats such as adaptive learning, stimulated learning, micro learning, video-based learning – all of which can be integrated with classroom learning, and can be made accessible anytime and anywhere.

Thus, the business model of publishing is not around the price of the book or content, but rather around how effectively a learning solution is being provided. The future of publishing lies in how well publishers can create a solution that can go up the value chain. I believe that in future, publishing would evolve into a model where the content is free but the services, delivery format and personalization of learning that publishers can create will have a premium price. For example, in the case of test prep, publishers can charge for how well they can offer the knowledge in bite size which can be easily ingested by learners or how well the learner can master the evaluated areas to be able to crack the exam best.

Classroom learning will be more about peer learning and discussing specific complex areas, while the core learning will be around a self-paced learning –the concept of a flipped classroom. The need for books or content will remain but the supplementary solutions and services will decide how successful a publisher’s product is.

AABP: How will this work in fiction and what can be done to stop piracy in fiction?

Vikas: Piracy is affecting fiction as well. Moreover, there are only so many storylines in the world. What creates a great experience is how well the story is told. Exponential increase in use of technology has disrupted our lifestyle in every possible way, be it through a more personalized shopping experience or personalized medicines or financial services – why not fiction as well?

Imagine creating a digital book, which can offer a personalized experience to individual readers. For example, after the first few chapters, there will be a set of question leading to different options based on how the reader answers the questions. Each option will lead to a different ending. Thus, you have many stories within a story based on what each reader prefers, and hence there is no question of piracy.

The future of fiction according to me is technology enabled where using techniques such as AI, sentiment analysis, text analysis and data analytics you can create multiple customized options and recommendations for each reader, immersive experiences such as a possibility to communicate with characters, multiple perspectives and infinite endings. You can create storylines around incidents or topics that are catching the attention of majority of the people at a certain point of time, and hence create a formula for sure shot success.

In case of reading for reference, with technology, you can interlink multiple reference material leading to alternative references, social reading and shared library experiences.

AABP: What would be future of higher education in the next decade, with a special focus on the next 3-5 years?

Vikas: It is true that the need for print books is disappearing in the higher education space and will continue to do so. Piracy will not allow the higher education book business to scale up anytime soon. But, school books will continue to grow as new schools are coming up regularly and K12 education is heavily dependent on textbooks. Additionally, the unavailability of good Internet bandwidth and Internet literacy in masses as well as a price-sensitive market will ensure dependence on printed books.

I feel new technologies are increasingly taking market share. If not in the next 3-5 years, digital will replace print by the next decade. In the near future, higher education publishing companies and education-based technology (Ed-Tech) companies will be joining hands to create and offer solutions that leverage the strength of both. Publishing companies hold the strength of credible content along with the expertise to curate high-quality content while technology companies have the expertise to create personalized learning solutions.

AABP: Are today’s challenges different from those in the past as there is a decline in reading habit in ‘book format’ and competition for attention with increased ‘screen’ time by millennials?

Vikas: According to Edelmen's Digital 2017 Trends Report, weekly share of time spent watching TV and videos on mobile devices have grown by 85% from 2010 to 2016. This means there is huge consumption of content in digital format today. It is also important to point out that today, almost all businesses and companies are in the business of content generation – be it technology companies or educational firms; every organization is generating content of some kind. At the same time, consumption on fixed screen has decreased by 14% over the same period, which means due to excess amount of content available, the competition to capture attention of the end-user is brutal and the path for reaching out to them complex.

There has been a major change in how people read. Even in the case of newspapers, most people glance through the headlines and the accompanying bullet points. There are apps which enable news headline to appear in your social media feed or present news items in short snippets of 2-3 sentences. There are only 10% people who go through newspapers in detail. People prefer speed reading − they want to consume more in less time.

Publishing needs to align with this consumer behavior – and thus be more visual and bite sized, and be available anytime and anywhere. The same principle also applies to the academic content.

AABP: There has been proliferation of free access (v/s priced access) in all kinds of content and formats. How this will affect the economics of publishing in a price sensitive market like India?

Vikas: A lot of content is available for free on the Internet. Hence, people prefer to pay only for something that has a premium value or is exclusive. A learning resource or fictional content will be a hit if you are able to capture the reader’s attention in a better way as compared to what is widely available.

The publishers of tomorrow can offer flat or static content for free and charge for the unique content/ learning experience. There can also be a model where the authors give their content free in an open access model, while the publisher offers value-added services such as premium videos, workshops, mentoring, etc. at a cost. So, the publishers need to create the right product mix to offer as a combination of both paid as well as free content.

Traditionally, publisher’s value has always been for the various services they offer to their authors and readers – in curating, packaging, marketing and distribution of content. The same principle remains relevant today. Digitization and its influence on consumer learning behavior have disrupted these methods content curation and distribution but have also opened up new models to monetize these services. Some of these could be subscription models where one can get a select set of loyal customers buying constantly; freemium model, where one can let customers get a taste of the core offering and then charge for various premium services to improve his or her outcome; and value-added curator/reseller model, where one can take available good content and build services around it.

Undoubtedly, this requires new capabilities but so does any business with changing times. Publishers cannot charge premium just for content anymore – they need to come up with innovative experiences and services which are valuable and which solve the end users' problem − consumers would be happy to pay for these specialized services.

AABP: What are the strategies being employed by publishers to cope up with the onset of new technology (from your experience in API and FIP, is there a difference between ‘Indian’ and MNCs in this context)?

Vikas: I would say that the route taken by Indian publishers towards technology was more cosmetic in the initial phase – an ebook is hardly the response to digitization. However, things are changing now. Publishers are realizing that it is just not enough to have a website, there is far more to it in the form of creating a customer-centric solution. Also, the distribution of content in India is quite fragmented. Publishers are using technology to tackle this problem as well.

Technology is making multiple innovative options available to learners and teachers to choose from, based on their learning preferences and background - such as learning by doing, collaborative or social learning, anytime-anywhere-learning, learning through gamification and virtual reality, adaptive learning, mentored learning – the list is endless. In this context, technology can become an influencer and enabler to reach end users in the format they are searching and make learning a personalized experience. However, technology alone cannot be the solution. Think of pure online learning such as MOOCs – a trainer teaches and thousands of students just hear. Majority of learners are unable to learn as it may not suit their individual learning style, it is again, in a way, a one-size-fits-all format, which doesn’t work.

While technology helps in making quality content available without any restrictions on time or geographical regions, the value of a learning solution as provided by a publisher or an educator will always depend on several driving factors: Basis my experience so far, both global and Indian publishers are looking at the industry from different perspectives. While MNCs are trying to customize global solutions, Indian publishers are collaborating with Ed-tech start-ups to create solutions customized to local needs. Both the approach has their own set of pros and cons and there are challenges as well to deal with. The biggest challenge that all the key players are facing is about monetizing the new initiatives with universities and colleges. Universities and colleges show interest in using the digital solutions but they do expect these to be a free supplement and thus, there exists a reluctance in paying.

AABP: How is Wiley specifically future proofing their business in India?

Vikas: Wiley is innovating on various education solutions constantly and for various formats — be it print, digital or online. We want to serve the need of each customer for the entire spectrum of their learning needs through their complete career arc. To safeguard our future, it is best to be a player in all the three mediums today, and offer a judicious combination based on market and learners’ needs.

In this crowded knowledge and content space, Wiley believes publishing will always be relevant if our focus moves from creating only great content in silos to offering quality content as complete learning solution that improves outcomes; helps achieve career success; meets the user's learning needs by being technology driven; is credible and authentic; is able to create a personalized, adaptive and user-centric experience; and also leverages user, product and functional networks and connections.

Wiley is focused on leveraging its core strengths − deep partnership with its readers and authors, high credibility and trust of customers, its distribution networks − to innovate on newer models and improve outcomes with effective and unique services. It is also trying to localize its global offerings, to enhance and make user experience more relevant across geographies and strengthening its footprints in research and learning frameworks, education, training, certification, and assessment products.

AABP: How do you think India fits in the global pub scene in the next few years give our demographic etc?

Vikas: India will play a huge role in science, technology, academic and medical publishing. This is because print content will still be in demand in geographies like Middle East, Africa, and South Asia, and India can bring in economies of scale. India will also be a key provider of technological solutions using high-end technology such as AI and analytics driven platforms and tools. Recently, a small AI company in Bangalore was bought by Google. Such innovations will permeate in the business of content and learning as well. In the digital world, India will be as good as US, innovating solutions at one-tenth the price in US.

For more on Vikas Gupta’s views on the Indian publishing landscape, see, Publishers on Publishing: Inside India’s Books Business, edited by Nitasha Devasar. Pages 26 & 39 have more details.

How do publishers walk the line between necessary business considerations and their industry's commitment to freedom of thought and expression? A number of major international players were faced with this dilemma in recent months, having to ask themselves the question whether self-censorship might be the only way forward in countries where freedom of speech is restricted. Here, Juergen Boos, president and CEO Frankfurt Book Fair shares more. In August 2017, the world's oldest publishing house, Cambridge University Press (CUP), performed an act of self-censorship that sparked a backlash from academics and authors: On the request of the Chinese authorities, the publisher had agreed to remove hundreds of politically-sensitive articles from its China Quarterly website, a leading China studies journal. In a statement on its website, CUP had explained that this course of action was taken in order "to ensure that other academic and educational materials we publish remain available to researchers and educators in this market." As a consequence of blocking the articles that all discussed sensitive issues such as ethnic tensions in Tibet or the Cultural Revolution, a petition was launched and signed by hundreds of academics, threatening to boycott the publisher if its act of self-censorship was not revoked. The articles were then reposted, with the author of the petition and Professor of Economics at Peking University's HSBC Business School, Christopher Balding, commenting to The Telegraph: "Hopefully, this will prompt thinking by foreign universities and academics about how to best engage with China rather than accepting its censorship exports."

Juergen Boos, president and CEO Frankfurt Book FairTwo more recent cases involving Chinese authorities saw Australian publisher Allen & Unwin as well as Springer Nature choosing the route of censoring, with the former actually deciding not to publish a book in its home market for concerns about Chinese retaliation. A step dubbed "a watershed" moment by Professor Clive Hamilton, author of the work in question, Silent Invasion: How China is Turning Australia into a Puppet State, that investigates the Chinese Communist Party's influence on Australian politics and academia. The publisher’s official statement spoke about delaying publication "until certain matters currently before the courts have been decided." In order to comply with local regulations, Springer Nature blocked access to, according to FT research, around 1,000 articles containing China critical content, using the same reasoning as CUP a few months earlier: “We'd rather make concessions affecting only a fraction of our output than risking accessibility to the rest of our output for our Chinese audience.”

Another note-worthy instance of self-censorship to avoid falling foul of local laws involved a publisher editing out part of a book's plot in its Russian edition – without informing the author. Victoria Schwab's Shades of Magic fantasy trilogy features LGBT characters and stories and its Russian publisher Rosman censored certain romantic scenes to comply with Russia's so-called "gay propaganda" law, banning the spreading of "propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations." Otherwise, the work would have been shrinkwrapped in plastic and given 18-plus rating, i.e., missed out on reaching the book's major target readership.

The dilemma that publishers face in all of these cases is clear: On the one hand, their international and licensing business is of vital economic importance so that failing to comply with local legislation and thus risking legal action can have significant consequences. On the other hand, publishing houses are by nature committed to free speech and have a responsibility to provide international access to their content, no matter the topic or critical approach. There's also their authors to consider and the message self-censorship sends to them. In the CUP case, the outrage and show of solidarity was immediate, creating pressure for the publishing house to react.

If regimes such as the Communist one in China have the power to resort to blackmailing techniques and publishers are confronted with laws, as in Russia, manifesting attitudes that are the polar opposite to liberal thought and enlightened thinking, how do you react as a content business whose very existence depends on openness and free expression of opinions? "No doubt, this is a vital issue for our industry, and publishers are being put in an incredibly difficult position by these restrictions on freedom of expression. As the Schwab-Rosman case in Russia has shown, there are certain principles, beyond all short-term economic considerations, that need to be upheld, since both the trust between author and publisher, and freedom of expression are core assets of the publishing industry," says Dr Jessica Sänger, director for European and International Affairs, German Publishers and Booksellers Association.

Navigating the tricky business of publishing content in a country where it has the potential to break local regulations does not necessarily have to result in situations that require self-censorship. German publishing house Links, for example, didn't encounter any issues when publishing a book in China on how readers in the former GDR undermined censorship, "I was surprised how easy it was and we had no problems finding a Chinese academic publisher, Social Science Academic Press, for our book," says publisher Christoph Links. And adds, "Turkish publisher Belge will publish a book of ours on the Armenian genocide and although this topic is a political taboo in Turkey, its historical interpretation is not codified in law. In many other countries, however, national law defines how certain historic occurrences are to be interpreted, so publishing titles that infringe such legislation requires a dialogue with the licensee to find a common understanding how to handle the situation."

Despite publishers succeeding in bringing critical content to countries considered to clamp down on certain sensitive issues, the fact that self-censorship crops up in so many different places and in various shapes and forms is a concern for the industry that requires cooperation on an international level, including sharing experiences on the realities of trying to walk the line between business interests, restrictive laws and freedom to publish: "Open discussion of the issue with all its implications is paramount for our industry in this context," stresses Juergen Boos, president and CEO of Frankfurt Book Fair. When countries such as China sign up to the International Publishers Association, with its guiding principle of freedom to publish, while at the same time pursuing a policy of censorship, the industry is clearly faced with an issue that raises a range of complex questions that won't be easily answered. Answers, however, and a long-term approach will have to be found.”

Juergen Boos will be speaking on Self-censorship at the upcoming IPA Congress 2018 in New Delhi, India.

The IPA was founded in 1896 by the largest publishing houses of the time, to promote and protect publishing worldwide, and to act as a watchdog of copyright and freedom to publish. Today it is still pursuing the same important mission. Dr Michiel Kolman, president, International Publishers Association at his opening address at Moscow International Book Fair shared his views on piracy and freedom of speech. Excerpts. Russia has a rich culture and history, both of which are immortalized by the immense canon of literature for which Russia is so admired. The list is enormous, from the mighty classics of Pushkin, Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky to the modern yet just as potent output of Pasternak, Solzhenitsyn and Nabokov.

Russia is an old nation that has undergone great changes but never lost sight of its identity – and this is a quality that the IPA shares. Underpinning the IPA’s mission are the pillars of copyright and freedom to publish – both indispensable principles that are facing unprecedented challenges today.

On copyright…

In the copyright arena, the IPA’s international lobbying focus is on the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva. The IPA is the first line of defence in the supranational IP treaty process, advancing the interests of publishers and the IP industries at WIPO’s most important decision-making fora. WIPO is the key battleground where the competing interests of copyright holders and opponents of copyright are fought out. Combat metaphors may be crude, but they are nonetheless applicable. The international copyright frameworks that safeguard creativity have never been under a more determined, sustained, and well-funded attack.

Powerful technology companies are bankrolling and waging a strategic campaign to weaken copyright worldwide by, among other things, evangelizing for increased ‘Fair Use’ exceptions. It is no accident that, in recent years, a succession of countries has launched copyright law reviews that include expanded fair use provisions.

The IPA is meeting this challenge head-on, weighing in to these national processes and flagging the potential long-term damage to creativity, literacy, education and employment done by undermining copyright.

We continue to work with our members and partners to ensure decision-makers are in possession of facts when they consider legal changes whose effects may be major, wide-reaching and long term. One such effect is the impairment of publishers and authors from making a proper return on their creativity, be it through inadequate copyright laws, or through deliberate violations and piracy.

Piracy in Russia…

And at this point I’d like to applaud the resolute steps being taken in Russia to tackle the book piracy epidemic. According to the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, between 25 and 30 percent of Russia’s overall book market is counterfeit – including schoolbooks.

Inferior quality counterfeit books in classrooms mean pupils get an inferior quality education. Not only that, but counterfeiting and piracy mean publishers do not benefit from the return on their investments, which curtails their ability to take risks and innovate, and to better prepare Russian children for the knowledge economies of the future.

We’re encouraged that the State is starting to take the matter seriously, and mounting a legal response. As a side note, some of the problems may be addressed by the removal of the high 18% VAT levy currently imposed on e-books in Russia, which would bring them into line with the zero rate applied to print books. After all, a book is a book whatever its format.

But we can be certain that without consistently applied proactive counter measures and communications campaigns to sensitize a Russian population that’s largely unconcerned about this crime – then the problem will get steadily worse.

Piracy comes in many forms, some of which may even lend it a veneer of acceptability. In the science domain, Sci-Hub is a source of global concern, and one that I’m sure publishers and governments everywhere want to address together.

Such platforms undermine the science publishing ecosystem that researchers and universities worldwide rely on for communication, validation and quality assurance.

Sci-Hub’s voluntary withdrawal from Russia this week was welcomed by many in the scientific publishing community, but further proactive action is needed to properly address the problem.

On freedom to publish…

The second pillar of the IPA is the freedom to publish. Violations of this right around the world are commonplace, with daily reports of writers and publishers coming under pressure. It is the IPA’s duty to challenge censorship wherever it occurs – as we did recently in China, when Beijing asked for the removal of a selection of online academic publications by Cambridge University Press. At first CUP felt it had no choice but to comply, but then it reinstated the articles, which we believe was the right thing to do.

The IPA criticized the Chinese authorities for attempting to impose academic censorship, and undermine freedom to publish and academic freedom, which are essential for the advancement of the science. We wait to see what Beijing will do next.

Another example is in Russia, where the IPA has been debating the problematic anti-gay propaganda law, which is compelling publishers to censor texts to avoid criminal liability. The law poses many questions beyond the immediate issue it seeks to address – questions about freedom of expression, commercial sensitivities, the sacred bond of trust between authors and publishers. We believe this law needs to be reviewed, because its good intentions to protect minors may in reality be doing more harm than good.

Fifth Shanghai International Children’s Book Fair reflects continuing growth in children’s market

The dynamism of the fast-growing children’s book market in China will be very evident at the fifth Shanghai International Children’s Book Fair (CCBF) (November 17-19, 2017, Shanghai World Expo Exhibition Centre) with over 350 exhibitors attending from 35 countries or regions. The show is dedicated to the publishing, printing and distribution of content for 0 to 16 year-olds, including books, magazines, audio-visual material, educational and recreational products – (comics, cartoons, animations, music, film and games). CCBF 2017 is fully supported by Shanghai Press & Administration, and approved by China State General Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television.

Over 60,000 new titles from all over the world will be on display in 25,000 sq metres of exhibition space, over a third of which is devoted to overseas publishers. This year’s fair will include many first-time exhibitors such as Sweden’s Bonnier, Tohan from Japan, and Penguin Random House.

The Fair is promoting illustrated children’s books through the Golden Pinwheel Young Illustrators Competition, which returns for its third year. The competition is designed to showcase new talent from around the world, and this year a record 3,655 entries have been received from artists in 37 countries. The winning entries will once again be announced during the Fair and displayed at a special exhibition.

While, an Authors’ Festival will bring overseas authors and illustrators to tour bookshops and other venues in Shanghai to meet young fans as well as attending events at the Fair itself.

Poetry turns words into art. It can hurt and it can heal. It can express emotions even in the most intensely joyous or grievous times. When we mention poetry, who could forget everlasting melancholy words of poets like William Shakespeare, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Percy Shelley, John Keats, Lord Byron, Rabindranath Tagore, Robert Frost, Maya Angelou, Edgar Allen Poe, and Emily Dickinson? Urdu poets like Ghalib, Zauk, Meer have a great impact on thoughtful poetic brains.

But when we talk about poetry in general, majority of Indians will pick some famous Bollywood songs. So, in my opinion the greatest poets of modern times are lyricists who have given words to most of our feelings and emotions. So, here we bring views of three best lyricists of Indian cinema – Gulzar, Javed Akhtar and Irshad Kamil on poets and poetry.

Gulzar’s copyright on moon!

If anyone hasn’t heard about Gulzar or his works, he’s surely an alien to literature. Although the word ‘Gulzar’ literally means a blossoming garden, yet it is not enough to describe a literal legend like Gulzar. His recognition as a lyricist was through the song “Mora Gora Aang” from the movie Bandini, which gave him instant fame and the much-awaited appreciation for his writing talent. Having a career spanning over five decades in Hindi cinema, he still feels that he is the ‘Man of Literature’. “I like writing…it helped me in expressing myself. Literature has been my background…from literature I went to movies and again came back to literature. I have been writing mainly in Urdu…it’s my medium of writing. But now my works have been translated to several other languages,” says Gulzar.

On asking what he likes most about his writing, he gave a confident reply… “Poetry.” He added, “I have written fiction, plays, poetry, screenplays, stories etc.…but poetry remains my lifeline…it’s my bloodline. I am always a poet by heart. I have volumes published in Urdu and Devnagri.” Gulzar’s poetry soothes the soul. He has the great ability to express intricate human emotions with simplicity. Through his poetry, he not only conveys love and emotions but also addresses serious issues and subjects.

Javed’s sweet bitterness and bitter sweetness

As per Javed Akhtar, “Words mean fragrance of honesty and sincerity. And it has to come from heart to make its impact.” A collection of poems in a form of book which he complied over the years has been great success. As per Javed, “These poems are the one enjoyed the best…because I don’t have to write as per the demand. It’s my personal thought…wrapped in a poetic way.” While expressing his general views on poetry in today’s world, he was bit disillusioned and added, "The generation has changed a lot; poetry has lost its value. But there are many people who are still interested in it. As far as the younger generation is concerned, they have forgotten it because it was never a part of an education system and their environment. The understanding of the craft is a bit limited."

On sharing his journey as a poet he added, “Somehow I didn't write poetry for long. Firstly I wanted to be a film director and always wanted to join films. Moreover, there were so many poets around that being a poet was not an accomplishment for me. But when I started poetry, it was a welcome change for me. I actually started writing poetry perhaps at the age where people stop writing poetry…it was in late thirties and within a few years I found a great amount of appreciation and recognition. It was really kind of others.”

His first collection of old Urdu poetry Tarkash was released in 1997 and today is in 11th edition, “If you read Tarkash and Lava you will find poetry of different genre. I write what I feel. No one can fake poetry. My poetry is strong it's about sweet bitterness and bitter sweetness of life and society it's not about soft romance,” he added.

Jab We Met...Irshad Kamil a Rockstar!

At a tender age of five, he started appreciating words and even created a poem. Well, these were the unnoticed spurts of the birth of the poet: Irshad Kamil. “One has to be in love, feel love and celebrate love within him first then only he can write words that will touch every heart and I have my stories too. It’s a gradual process and result of years of personal, emotional and inspiration journey that leads us to a point where we are now,” he says.

Irshad’s songs are his imaginative revelations, yet to be decoded by all. But movie Rockstar is the closest to the reflection of this Lyricist. Writing for Rockstar, Irshad effortlessly unleashed the real rebellion that he is... Rockstar was a catharsis…an experience of returning to oneself…reclaiming oneself.

Having a successful and satisfying career in Bollywood, writing a book was neither an impulsive nor an easy thing for him. It was a long yearning within him to write a book. As he shared, “Poetry is a free process; it is like flying in the sky. Writing songs too is similar to flying in the sky but within limits, as there are a number of factors to be taken into account. But there is more freedom when you are writing for yourself, than when you are working for someone else. For films, you have to keep the story and characters in mind, whereas while writing poetry, our emotions and thoughts flow without any constraints. I have been writing poetry since a long time. My first book, Ek Mahina Nazmon Ka, has been written in a particular nazm meant for my young followers and fans and has the tagline Love’s Long Biography. As the title suggests, it is a book on love with a very contemporary feel to it.”

–Smita Dwivedi

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